Everybody's Libraries

October 4, 2013

July 30, 2012

In which I finally buy an ebook

Filed under: copyright,formats,online books,reading,science fiction — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 9:43 pm

In my last post, I discussed why I wanted to buy ebooks I could truly own, and my subsequent attempts to buy such a  copy of John Scalzi’s Redshirts from a readers’-rights-friendly retailer.  I initially had a hard time finding an ebook store that fulfilled three basic requirements:

  1. The store must sell a DRM-free copy of the book, in a convenient format.  That eliminated specialized ebook stores that didn’t carry the title at all.  Also, a number of major sites only had DRM-locked versions at first.
  2. The store must make the format and DRM-free status clear. Most mass-market ebooks are still locked down with DRM, and I don’t want to get stuck with that, either for this title or for other titles I might buy.  So the store had to make it clear what I was buying, either by a notation on the book’s catalog page, or by a general policy stating that books they offered were DRM-free.
  3. The store must not require me to agree to give up my rights as a reader under copyright law.  In particular, I would not consent to any terms of sale that significantly limited my rights of fair use or first sale.  Fair use allows me to make copies of copyrighted material under certain conditions, such as quoting and critiquing a small portion in my own work, or making a complete personal copy of a  TV show I’ve received or CD I’ve  bought, for more convenient consumption.  First sale lets me decide how to dispose of a book once I’ve bought it, including giving over the copy of something I’ve already lawfully acquired to someone else.  (First sale rights also let libraries lend out books without having to ask publishers first.)  Each of these rights has limits, and there are still disputes over how far these rights can be applied to digital content.  But I didn’t want to pre-emptively sign away rights that copyright law might give me.

I didn’t think it would be that hard to find a retailer to meet these requirements.  But here’s what I found when I went shopping:

Barnes and Noble: Since we owned a Nook, I first called up the store app on that device.  The ebook was simply marked as a “Nook Book”, with no clear differentation between a DRM-free and a DRM-locked copy.  (The current catalog page for the book now mentions in the overview that it’s being sold without DRM, though  not very prominently.)  I also recalled that to get access to the store in the first place, I had to click through a terms of service agreement.   Reviewing that on the web turned up a clause saying I couldn’t “copy, transfer, sublicense, assign, rent, lease, lend, resell or in any way transfer any rights to all or any portion of the Digital Content to any third party” except under certain explicit, very limited conditions.  In other words, give up first sale rights to anything I bought in the Nook store.  Rather than do that, I moved on to another retailer.

Amazon: There was no clear mention of DRM status on the book’s catalog page initially (even now, I don’t see it there until I click on “show more”).  Anazon uses its own Kindle (mobi) format for its books, so I’d need to convert it to a different format (possibly degrading the layout in the process) or get a Kindle reading program or device. The Kindle License Agreement and Terms of Use limits how I’m allowed to read books they sell, disallows third party transfers except by explicit permission, and in case I missed the point, explicitly states “Digital Content is licensed, not sold”.  No sale here, then.

Google:  Going over to Google Books, I find this book available through Google Play.  The catalog page doesn’t tell me what format it’s in, or whether it has DRM; it instead just asks me to sign in to buy it.  Google then tells me I have to agree to their terms, which again include no third party transfers, before it will give me access to whatever formats it may let me download.  If I read the book online within Google Play itself, its  privacy policy allows it to look over my shoulder to a limited extent while I’m reading.  Google pledges to use this power only for good, but personally I’d prefer to download and keep my reading details to myself in the first place, thanks.

Sony Reader store: Information on format and DRM status is not clear for its books.  Based on Sony’s past history with DRM, there’s no way I’m giving them the benefit of the doubt with the formats they might use.

Independent bookstores: I  also looked into whether I could buy an ebook through one of the independent bookstores I’ve liked shopping in.  Unfortunately, they don’t seem to offer much.  My local indie store doesn’t appear to sell ebooks at all, and Powell’s doesn’t offer seem to offer this title at present.  Independents in the IndeBound ebook program appear to just be referral agents for Google Books.

Diesel eBooks: The slogan “More freedom, more ebooks” seemed promising when I found this site.  Diesel offers both DRM-locked and DRM-free titles, and their catalog pages make it very clear which is which.   Unfortunately, they only offered a DRM-locked version of Redshirts for weeks after it was first released.  However, I recently went back to the site and found they’d switched to the DRM-free version.  Buying that ebook consisted of registering my name and email address, giving them my credit card information, and downloading an EPub file.  No click-through agreements were involved, and when I went over to look at the general terms of use for the site, they basically amounted to “don’t abuse the site, or infringe copyright”.  In short, I gave them money, and they gave me an ebook, and said “Enjoy!”, with no further fuss. That’s the kind of book shopping I like.

So there’s at least one reasonably comprehensive and reader-friendly ebookstore out there.  I’d be happy to hear about others as well.  And I look forward to buying and owning more books, in both print and electronic formats.

July 29, 2012

In which I try to buy an ebook

Filed under: copyright,online books,reading,science fiction — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 9:52 pm

Not long ago I went to the bookstore and bought some books.

This is how: I found some books I liked on the shelves, brought them to the front counter, and handed the clerk some money.  The clerk put my books and a receipt into a bag, and ended the transaction by handing me the bag and saying “Enjoy!”

So that’s what I did.  As I left the store, I thought about which book I’d start on the train home, and about all the other things I could do with my new books.  I could read them to myself, read out load to my family, lend them out to friends, cite or briefly quote them in my own work, trade them in at the used bookshop, donate them to the local library, bequeath them to my heirs, cut things out from them and post them on my wall, make origami art out of the pages, or lots of other things that neither I nor the bookseller had yet imagined.  As long as I didn’t violate copyright or other laws, neither the bookstore, the publisher, nor anyone else had any further say in how I  enjoyed the books.  They were mine.

I also own a number of books on my computers, but not ones I’ve bought, at least not as ebooks.  (They’re all in the public domain, or came bundled with a print edition I bought, or are free authorized digital editions. I don’t do bootlegs.)  But I wanted to buy electronic books as well– books I liked that weren’t being offered for free or in bundles; books where I could support the authors and publishers through my purchase.

Unfortunately, there weren’t many ebooks of interest that I could buy– at least not if “buying” means “owning”.  Oh, I could call up a store app on my Nook, or go to Amazon online, where they offered me book files in return for some money and my consent to a take-it-or-leave-it agreement.   A file I paid for wouldn’t be a book I owned, it would be a file that I licensed under a non-negotiable contract, and I could only do with the file what the vendor, the publisher, and other parties to the agreement decreed I could do.  The file itself would be encrypted with “Digital Rights Management” (DRM), that would only allow display by approved programs that carefully controlled whether and how I could read the book. And if those programs stopped working, or decided to revoke my right to read the book, or if I wanted to use the books on some other system, or in some other way they didn’t anticipate and approve of, tough luck for me.  (Technically, I could break the encryption, but I would be breaking the law if I did.)   And I shouldn’t even think about trying to pass along the book to someone else– unless I was lucky enough to find a title eligible for some very limited lending experiments certain publishers and vendors were trying out.  I have books in my home that my grandparents read 100 years ago, but I had little hope my grandchildren would be able to read ebooks like these, at least not legally.

A few places offered DRM-free books for sale, but they tended either to offer titles I preferred to read in print (like the computer books published by O’Reilly), or they didn’t offer many titles of interest to me.  I wasn’t going to get into the habit of buying ebooks unless there was a critical mass of titles worth aggregating into a personal library.

So I was thrilled when Tor, a major science fiction publisher and an imprint of one of the Big Six publishing companies, announced that all of their books would soon be sold DRM-free.  They weren’t the first SF imprint to take this route– Baen, for instance, has been offering DRM-free titles for years– but Tor had enough authors I liked that I could see myself buying ebooks from them fairly regularly.  Tor’s first DRM-free release would be John Scalzi’s Redshirts, a book I’d already been hoping to buy, and which I now decided to buy as an ebook.  That would let me try out the new format, and also thank Tor and Scalzi for taking the initiative to let readers just own their books.  (And if Tor’s initiative does well, other imprints might follow.)

I originally planned to buy the ebook on its release date.  But even when an author and a publisher are ready to go, it can take a while to get the retailers on board.  On the day Redshirts came out, many ebook stores delivered DRM-locked files instead of the DRM-free edition readers expected.  (Thankfully, Tor offered free exchanges almost right away.)  More worrisome to me, though, was that many of the major ebook retailer sites wouldn’t complete a transaction unless I first indicated consent to a “take it or leave it” agreement that appeared to sign away important rights readers normally have to books they buy.  Unlike the print books I bought in the bookstore, my enjoyment of the ebooks I got from these sellers would be restricted by their contractual demands, above and beyond the standard constraints of copyright law.  DRM or no DRM, the ebooks would not  truly be my own if I agreed to those demands.

Eventually, though, I found a retailer that offered what I wanted without any unacceptable strings attached, and I’m now a happy Redshirts ebook owner and reader.  I’ll describe my experience buying the book from that retailer, and not buying the book from some better-known retailers, in my next post.

May 5, 2009

March 18, 2009

September 29, 2008

Why Banned Books Week matters

Filed under: censorship,crimes and misdemeanors,libraries,online books,reading — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 4:35 pm

It’s Banned Books Week again, and Amnesty International, the American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression and the American Library Association are among the groups noting the occasion. I’ve also updated the links on my ongoing exhibit Banned Books Online in preparation for this week, a time when the exhibit gets an especially large volume of visits.

Banned Books Week is really about two different, but related, things. The first of these, the focus of sites like Amnesty’s and the “Books Suppressed or Censored by Legal Authorities” section of my exhibit, deals with attempts to restrict who is allowed to speak about what matters to them. And in a lot of the world, the right to speak out is severely and violently repressed. The other day I added to my online books collection a number of titles from Human Rights Watch, which has many books, press releases, and other publications about grave threats to freedom of the press and freedom to protest in places like Burma, Chile, China, Cuba, Pakistan, Turkey, Venezuela, various Middle Eastern and African countries, former Soviet republics, and many other places around the world.

Americans enjoy a country with a much freer press than the countries above (and indeed, a freer press than we had in my grandparents’ day). We’re not perfect; our legal system does sometimes suppress legitimate expression, for a time at least, in the name of security, copyright, or “the children”. (And sometimes the threat of criminal violence can suppress books when the law does not.) It is worth remembering the important books that can be published thanks to the free press, and not to take them for granted.

But the banned books lists you’ll find in many libraries and bookstores (or in dubious chain emails) doesn’t focus much on the political samizdat, security exposés, or portrayals of Mohammed that are the objects of forcible suppression today. Instead, they’re often full of classics and popular titles sold widely in bookstores and online– or dominated by books written for young readers, or assigned for school reading. Some of the titles in these lists have been the targets of publication suppression at some point, but many (like those in the Harry Potter series) have not.

So is it wrong to call these books banned? Are lists like these just “shameless propaganda”, as some conservatives charge, or a hapless attempt to market classic literature to teens, as satirized in an Onion piece?

Not if you take readers seriously. An unread book, after all, has as little impact as an unpublished book. The bans that dominate the ALA lists are the obverse of publication bans: they’re attempts to restrict who is allowed to hear about what matters to them. True, their reach may be smaller than the government bans that can keep a book out of an entire state or country. And it may often be easier to circumvent these kinds of bans. (Particularly if you have a driver’s license, a credit card, and easy Internet access, things that adults often take for granted but that many kids lack.) But censorship at the reader’s end can be just as injurious as censorship at the writer’s end.

Librarians and teachers necessarily select certain books, and not others, for their collections and classes, and decide where they will best work. And it’s right for patrons of the schools and libraries to have some say in these selections (even if the professionals should generally be allowed to do their jobs). So simply counting “challenges” to a book isn’t very informative. But there’s a world of difference between saying “isn’t this more appropriate for the YA shelves than for the early readers section?” or “Would this title be a better fourth-grade book on this topic than the one currently being used?”, and insisting “None of our kids should be reading about this kind of thing!” when “this kind of thing” is already on the minds of those kids, or something that they should be thinking about. The “Unfit for Schools and Minors?” section of my Banned Books online exhibit describes some of the more dubious attempts to keep books out of the hands of young readers.

My oldest child is only 8, but he’s already coming up with new and challenging questions on an almost-daily basis. By the time kids reach double-digit ages (which is the young end of the audience for most of the controversial books) they have lots of questions about life, death, sexuality, unfairness, hatred, violence, drugs, and religion. They deserve the chance to explore answers to these questions in their reading and in their conversations.

In the process, they may encounter some ideas they’re not ready to deal with fully. (But encounters with text are often naturally self-regulated. When I was a young precocious reader, I’d usually skim over difficult parts or lose interest in a book that had them. More than once I’ve been surprised going back to a book as an adult and seeing what I’d missed as a kid.) Kids will also certainly encounter lots of dubious ideas and counsels. But mainstream culture is full of these as well, and I hope that I and other parents will teach our kids how to evaluate those wisely, whether or not they come from sources we usually think of as “controversial”.

Banned Books Week is thus about twin freedoms: the freedom to write about what matters to you, and the freedom to read about what matters to you. In this week’s observance, I hope we grow to better appreciate these freedoms and the power of books and ideas.

June 5, 2008

A break, and coming attractions

Filed under: architecture,online books,reading — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 11:16 pm

I’m about to head off to the wilds (okay, the farms) of Saskatchewan to relax with family on a much-welcomed break. I’ve got to the point in packing where we’re trying to figure out which books to bring. (Which involves some careful selection to narrow it down to the number of books we can bring on the ever-more-limited-space airlines without excess baggage problems.)

I leave the ILS-Discovery Interface work in good hands, and there should be good news shortly (hopefully, quite shortly, and well before I return) for folks who are interested in this initiative. I’ll have more to say on what comes next after I get back. Also after I come back, a couple of weeks from now, I’ll be picking up on the repositories series I started last month, with a review of the what-why-who-and-where of the various kinds of repositories that libraries may find of use.

Online book fans may also be interested in following a debate going on now about ebook publishing, business models, and piracy. Author David Pogue had a Times Blog post a couple of weeks ago giving his reasons for not issuing electronic editions of his titles, that drew a long set of reader comments. Now Adam Engst has posted an interesting and detailed rebuttal, where he describes his own sales successes with his ebooks (piracy notwithstanding).

You might also enjoy “Reading sets you free”, an article posted about a month ago by K. G. Schneider (who I had the pleasure of meeting in person recently at a NISO discovery forum.) I was reminded of it again just now as I was trying to think of what books the kids might bring. As in the picture accompanying her article, both of them are very much read-under-the-covers kids at this point, as were both their parents. We’re all looking forward to spending a lot of time conversing with each other and with our books these next couple of weeks.

January 28, 2008

Close readers

Filed under: open access,reading,sharing — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 9:46 pm

There’s been a lot of public fretting lately over the state of reading. People don’t read as much as they once did, we’re told. When it’s pointed out that in fact lots of people are reading online, we’re sometimes told it’s the wrong kind of reading– “inanities” of “blogging and blugging”, to quote a recent Nobel laureate. I get the impression from some essays that on the one hand there’s offline reading, deep, solitary, and contemplative, and on the other hand online reading, shallow, social, and mercurial. The two seem to have little in common, by this sort of account.

Of course, it’s not that simple. And I’ve recently encountered a few initiatives that cut right across that dichotomy, gathering people together to closely read and discuss texts with each other.

At a recent lunchtime get-together, JT Waldman told me about the Jewish Publication Society‘s new Yavnet web site, now in alpha. It’s a project to create “a living and breathing commentary” on the Torah, by encouraging readers to look at particular passages, and join online, moderated discussions on them. Drawing on the JPS’s Tanakh translations, its published, scholarly commentaries, and online discussions, readers will be able to read and participate in conversations that help bring out the meaning of Biblical passages. The basic idea isn’t new– the Talmud, after all, is a centuries-old multi-layered commentary on the scriptures– but the Yavnet folks hope to use the Internet to grow and propagate fresh understandings and appreciations of the Torah in online communities.

Another recently announced site is Book Glutton (this one says it’s in beta), which aims to bring groups of people together to discuss a book as they read it. Their reader software is also designed for close reading; instead of just reviewing or discussing a book in general, readers can attach comments to specific passages of a book, and have live chats with people reading the same sections. They appear to be built largely on public domain texts, which lend themselves well to new interfaces and purposes.

Mind you, with openly accessible texts, you don’t have to limit your discussion to a single site. Jon Udell recently wrote about how discussions of scientific articles are often widely distributed over the blog network. An active discussion ensued, and just a couple of days later, he made a followup post showing some of the tools now available to track such discussions online. That was quick!

Close reading, whether of books or other text, may sometimes be solitary, but it doesn’t have to be. And the Net can bring together close discussions of text from far-flung participants, discussions that were not practical to convene offline. As Ursula Le Guin put it in the new (February) issue of Harper’s, “Books are social vectors, but publishers have been slow to see it.” (You’ll have to subscribe online or find a copy at your library or news-stand to read the full article, but it’s already being discussed online in various places. I first saw her quote in this Mediabistro post, which also points to some related discussions elsewhere.)

I look forward to seeing the new directions that the social vectors of books and texts take online, as the sites above and others like them develop further.

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