Everybody's Libraries

April 23, 2009

David Reed: Some extracts from his life and letters

Filed under: online books,people — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 11:36 pm

Last summer I was looking for a particular book. I couldn’t find it in any library in my State. Went interlibrary loans and found one copy at the library of Congress. Only one copy in the whole country. One of the best stories I ever [heard] about this is one when one of my professors was working on a trash pile of papyrus sheets and came across one that said [it] was the works of Meander. He went through that pile of papyrus with a fine tooth comb. He didn’t find anything but that single piece. He said that it felt as though he was looking across the centuries and saying, “Somewhere out there are the works of Meander.” [Friends,] this is how things get lost forever.

David Reed, 1997

Today, there are thousands of important books that will likely never share that fate as long as civilization lasts, because they were digitized and sent all over the world.  Many of these books were first put online by Project Gutenberg.  And many of the Project Gutenberg texts are online thanks to the work of David Reed.

I scanned and released Gibbon’s Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and hardly a day goes by when I don’t get an email from someone thanking me for releasing it on the web. At one site I know that it has been downloaded 1800+ times in all six volumes.

David Reed, 2001

In the mid-1990s, Project Gutenberg had an outlandish-sounding goal: to make 10,000 books freely available online by the start of the 21st century.  They’d only managed to put a couple hundred online by then.  Authors like Clifford Stoll were skeptical that they, or anyone else, would ever reach such a goal.

But Gutenberg was soon publishing more and more texts every month, at an ever-increasing pace.   Lots of those texts had David Reed’s name on them.  Working persistently with his own scanner, well before the era of well-funded mass digitization, he digitized and proofread long works that few other people at the time would have taken on: Gibbon’s Decline and Fall; Shakespeare’s First Folio;  Josephus’ Antiquities of the Jews; Frazer’s Golden Bough; Tocqueville’s Democracy in America.  He also scanned numerous works weighty and light from authors like Rudyard Kipling, Louisa May Alcott, Robert Frost, James Joyce, and the US government.

Some critics in academia complained that the books David and others put up for Gutenberg were not up to the standards of scholarly editions.  David didn’t begrudge the work of scholars, but he wanted to put up more works, more quickly, to reach a broader audience.  As he put it in 1999:

[I] think that [it’s] important to remember that we do all this work because we like to read and we like to share our discoveries with others…. I see no reason why the text specialists can’t have the specialist collections and the general people (like myself) have the general collections. There is room enough on the web for all of us. The real enemy are those who want to lock up all the books in the world. The real enemy are those who don’t read a single book.

David was fighting another enemy besides illiteracy, one closer to home. He had diabetes, and in the last few years of his life his health slowly worsened from complications of that disease. He didn’t mention it in this post (nor, as far as I can remember, in any of the posts he made to the Book People mailing list, from which these quotations are taken). But even while his health was failing, he continued to put books online, like this emergency childbirth manual that was posted this past October.  He was working to fulfill a dream that he described back in his 1999 post:

I dream of the day when we have 50,000 and 100,000 etext libraries on the web. Where there are 100 new etexts being released a week or every couple of days. When I can’t keep up with reading every etext that pops up on the Online Book Page or that Project Gutenberg releases. . I appreciate all the work that you are all doing. I love reading the work that you are all doing.

David died on April 21, 2009, according to the email his son Chris sent to David’s contacts list.  By then, Google Books and the Internet Archive’s book collection had made over 1 million books freely available online, the various Gutenberg projects had posted just over 30,000 books, and many smaller projects had posted numerous unique titles as well.  He lived long enough to see his dream come true, thanks in part to his own pioneering work and dedication.

I have dedicated etexts in honor of my daughter, my sons, my wife, parents and in honor of my companies I work for, even in honor of myself.

David Reed, 2001

Out there all over the Net, in millions of replicas, are the works of David Reed, transcribing many of the great authors that have also passed on.  In some sense, all of those works are dedicated  to him.  Through them, I hope his name lives on for generations to come.

April 9, 2009

Recent copyright news and comment (an extended mix)

Filed under: copyright,libraries — John Mark Ockerbloom @ 1:53 pm

I seem to have a certain degree of inertia over getting a blog post out, and there have been at least 4 interesting recent items related to copyright.  Since I haven’t managed to post about each individually, I’ll get over the hump by putting them all into a single post.  I hope most of my readers will find at least one of these items of interest.

1. This year marks the 100th anniversary of the passage of the Copyright Act of 1909, the first “modern” copyright law of the US.  The announcement for an April 30 conference on the Act describes its significance:

The 1909 Act was the first to protect works upon publication with notice, without prior registration; the first to expressly recognize a right to prepare derivative works; and the first to expressly recognize the public domain. The 1909 Act remained in effect for seven decades, during which time copyright law was repeatedly called upon to deal with the disruptive effect of new technologies, such as motion pictures, sound recordings, radio and television, photocopy machines, and computers. As a result, the 1909 Act had a significant influence on the copyright law we have today.

Several aspects of the law are ones I wish we still had today, like terms of more reasonable length (the maximum under the 1909 act was 56 years from publication), and the earlier expiration of copyrights into the public domain if the owner did not care enough about it to take some basic steps to maintain it (namely, including a copyright notice, and eventually registering and renewing it).  Unfortunately, as William Patry laments, the treaty structures we’re now embroiled in prevent us from returning to that regime.

If you’d like to see both the original 1909 act, and the evolution of copyright law since, David Hayes has a wonderful site where you can read the law that was in effect at various times from then until now.

2. I’ve seen more discussion online of the Google Books setttlement, and the monopoly rights it gives to Google for providing digitized copies of “unclaimed” out of print copyrighted works (or what James Grimmelmann calls “zombie works“).  It’s worth a reminder that it isn’t just Google that has a potential monopoly here; it’s also the Book Rights Registry itself.  Even if other digitizers get the rights to do what Google does, and set their own retail prices for access, the Books Rights Registry can decide on the wholesale prices and other terms, and these will obviously play a big role in determining retail prices that any provider will offer.

If the settlement agreement is upheld (as I hope it will be; I’d much rather see 1 comprehensive collection of digitized out of print books than 0), it could form the model for a future compulsory licensing scheme for such books.  Congress has enacted these before, when it’s seen a sufficient need and interest, and it’s set maximum prices for such licenses.  For instance, the current maximum license fee for recording many songs is 9.1 cents per copy, reflecting a steady but controlled rise over the last few decades.  According to this account of recent negotiations, some publishers reportedly wanted a dramatic boost to 15 cents per copy, while some digital music retailers wanted the maximum cut in half, to 4.5 cents per copy.  Congress’ Copyright Royalty Board has managed to find a middle ground that balances the interests of creators and users, while providing a way to avoid the inefficiencies of song-by-song rights negotiation.  Congress could do something similar with copyrighted but out of print books, if their constituents urged them to.  (They would have to be careful to stay within international treaty constraints, but if the licensing regime for Google falls within those constraints, then I would think that a similar regime for all set up by Congress should as well.)

3. It might eventually be possible to put many of these books online in any case, if a recent decision by a federal court in Colorado is upheld and is applied broadly enough.  In 1996, many foreign works were taken out of the public domain and put back into copyright as the result of a law passed as a result of the GATT treaties.  (I have a discussion on copyright renewals that goes into some of the details.)  Last week, a federal judge struck down this law; in the words of plaintiff attorney Larry Lessig, it “violated the First Amendment to the extent it restored copyright against parties who had relied on works in the public domain.” (Such parties are known as “reliance parties”).

I’m happy to hear about the decision, but I’m not yet ready to fire up the scanners.  For one thing, another federal circuit has already ruled the opposite way on the same issue, as William Patry noted in a 2005 blog post about a case involving Luck’s Music Library.  It remains to be seen how higher courts, or courts in other jurisdictions, will deal with these contradictory rulings.  Also, despite some claims I’ve seen online, the decision doesn’t state outright that removing works from the public domain is necessarily unconstitutional.  Rather, it says that doing so requires a higher standard of constitutional scrutiny that is not met for the case in question, in particular because Congress restricted the rights of reliance parties more stringently than international treaties actually required.

It seems possible to me that, even if the new decision survives appeal, it might simply result in an expansion of reliance party rights, and not a general right to put books online whose copyrights had been restored.  (On the other hand, the definition of “reliance party” in the law in question seems to me to include libraries and others that have simply “acquire[d].. a copy” of a restored work.) I’m not a lawyer, though, and the copyright restoration laws at issue are notoriously complicated.  I’d be interested in hearing more commentary from lawyers about the details and implications of this decision.

4. Finally, the recent publication in the New York Review of Books of a leaked, damning ICRC report on torture at Guantanamo raises some interesting copyright and ethics questions.  As David Bigwood suspects, the report is copyrighted (effective the moment it was written down) and was published without the permission of the Red Cross, which has a general policy of opposing publication of its confidential reports.  Mind you, I don’t think libraries that simply receive a print copy unsolicited (e.g. as part of of an ongoing subscription to the NYRB) should have any legal or moral qualms about keeping, preserving, and giving their patrons access to it.  But what about electronic versions, which typically involve new copies made every time someone new reads them?

There are a few approaches one could take to this question.  A fair use defense is certainly worth consideration, for instance.  The document clearly reveals many things of great public interest in the US; it’s being published online for noncommercial purposes (they’re distributing it as a free, ad-less PDF); and there’s no market for the work to be affected, since the Red Cross does not market these reports, or put them out in the public at all.  On the other hand, the document is not just quoted from, but reproduced in its entirety, and traditionally there’s been less fair use slack given for unpublished works than for published works.  But there have been past cases (such as those involving Diebold voting machine memos) where reproducing documents in full in the public interest has been upheld as fair use.  I suspect that the Red Cross will most likely not take the trouble to sue over this recent publication, but if they did, I can’t be positive about how the case would turn out.

One might argue that whether or not fair use applies, publication is justified as civil disobedience of copyright law in the service of a higher law against torture.  This approach poses some problems of its own, though, particularly under theories where those who engage in civil disobedience gladly accept the legal consequences of their actions.  Congress as of late has been steadily increasing the penalties for copyright infringement, and even the statutory and attorney’s fees, independent of any damages, are now large enough to give many people pause.

There’s also another interesting way to resolve the copyright question: A member of Congress could read the report into the Congressional Record.  By law and custom, the statements of the legislature are given immunity from most forms of legal liability, so a copy of the report in the CR, including in the online verion, should not be a legal violation of copyright, as far as I’m aware.  (Indeed, The Online Books Page already links to one other book that was read in its entirety into the CR.)  The online version there would then be readable to anyone with an Internet connection.

Reading the report into the record wouldn’t just clear up a copyright issue.  It would also put all of Congress officially on notice about the violations of American and international law by the government.  And just as we have obligations under copyright treaties to deal with copyrighted works in various ways, we also have obligations under human rights treaties to outlaw prisoner mistreatment, and investigate and prosecute those who conducted, oversaw, and covered up torture and other human rights violations, no matter how high their rank or office.

In other words, we Americans now have a test before us:  Do we take the essential rights of life and integrity of living, breathing human beings at least as seriously as we take the rights of intellectual property?  If you think we should, you might want to urge your representatives in Congress and other governmental officials to take appropriate action.

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